History of Bangladesh and Linguistic Imperialism
Present day Status of English
Present day English Education
English in Action
This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Second, the practice of teaching English in varied instructional settings is described. It is found that implementation lags far behind the major policy change in 1989 for "democratising" English. Furthermore, the consequences of using English as the medium of instruction are discussed in the light of recent policy advisories about using English for teaching science and mathematics from Grade 6 onwards in all Pakistani schools. Other issues and challenges in implementing the policy of mass literacy in English are also highlighted. It is argued that while policy decisions are driven mainly by global change forces, strategic planning for implementation that is informed by local conditions and exigencies is necessary for successful policy implementation. Otherwise, recent policy changes in Pakistan may be in danger of leading to widespread illiteracy, rather than literacy, in general but particularly in English.