What is World Englishes?


Kachru's classification of English (Kachru, 1982, 1988).


World Englishes is a mixture of many fields of study. Here are just a few:

1. Linguistics and corpus linguistics

 a. What do different Englishes sound like? (phonology)
 b. What differences are there in vocabulary? (semantics,lexicography)
 c. What differences are there in grammar and word order? (syntax)
 d. How did Englishes develop and why? (historical linguistics)

--Linguistics group

2. Communication and Sociolinguistics

 a. What differences are there in context and cultural background? (sociolinguistics)
 b. How do people use different Englishes differently? (sociolinguistics)
 c. How do people come to understand each other? (communication accommodation)

--Communication group

3. Language Policy and Education

 a. Is English used as a Native, Second, International language? (Kachru's three circles)
 b. How is English taught in different countries? (ELT)
 c. Is English "too important"? (linguistic imperialism)
 d. How can other languages be "protected"? (language preservation)

--Englishes group

4. English for Specific Purposes

 a. How is English used in different businesses and situations? (ESP)
 b. How can English best be used in different businesses and localities? (linguistic auditing)
 c. What differences are there in popular usage of English? (music, T-shirts, advertising, etc.)

--Other group