The original 1._______________ United States clung to the Atlantic coast. As a result of the 2._______________ War, England ceded her holdings east of the 3.____________ River.
The new states of Vermont in New England, Kentucky, and Ohio had been admitted by 4.__________, when President Thomas Jefferson purchased Louisiana from France, 5.___________ the size of the new nation. Jefferson thus obtained the outlet of the Mississippi River and her tributaries at New Orleans. Louisiana was made a state in 1812 to solidify the acquisition of this key 6. __________.
In 1812 a second war began with Great Britain. British Canada was attacked on the Great Lakes; 7.____________________ was burned; and a British invasion of New Orleans was foiled by Andrew Jackson. The war ended in a 8.___________ in 1815.
The states of Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri were quickly admitted to the Union. Three were 9.____________ states; three were free.
This maintained an equal number of slave and free states in the Senate, and the south's ability to stall legislation and maintain slavery in the 10.___________. However, under the Missouri 11.____________ of 1820, future slavery was prohibited north of the southern boundary of Missouri.
Friendlier relations ensued with Great Britain. In 1818, the 12. ____th __________, or latitude, was agreed upon as the border west to the Rocky Mountains. Beyond that lay the 13. ______________ Country, to be settled by citizens of both nations.
Spain, a 14.__________ power, held the land to the west and south of the new nation, including much of Central and South America. In a treaty of 1819, Spain agreed to the 42nd parallel as a limit to northern expansion. For certain adjustments, she ceded 15.___________ to the United States.
As this treaty was signed, Latin America was in 16._________. All the South American nations were independent by 1824. Mexico achieved 17._____________ in 1821.
Unlike Spain, Mexico opened her borders to American settlers. Texas was colonized in 1821. The Texans revolted against the Mexican government in 1835, and became an independent 18.__________ the following year.
As the nation expanded, the native American 19.__________ east of the Mississippi River were removed west, in forced marches, to the Indian 20.______________ in what is now Oklahoma.
Arkansas was admitted in 1836 as a slave state, and Michigan in 1837 as a free state.
The settlement of the 21._________ began in earnest in the 1840's. Many people followed the Oregon 22.________, which ran across the Great Plains along the Platte River, past the Great Salt Lake in the Rockies, and ending in Oregon on the Pacific 23.____________.
Florida was admitted as a slave state in 1845, as was Texas, including all the land north of the Rio Grande River claimed by Texas.
Mexico could not accept what she considered a land grab of her territory, and the Mexican 24._______ of 1846 to 48 followed. The Americans won in New Mexico, California and northern Mexico, but only the conquest of Mexico City in 1847 forced the Mexican government to surrender.
Mexico ceded to the United States Texas and the entire southwest, including California, where 25._________ was discovered just as this peace treaty was signed.
In 1846, as this war was beginning, Great Britain agreed to extend the 49th parallel as the northern 26.____________ to the Pacific coast, thus adding the Oregon Territory to the United States.
During this war, the 27.____________, persecuted in the east, trekked across the Great Plains and settled by the Great Salt Lake.
Iowa and Wisconsin were admitted as free states during the war.
California became a 28._________ state in 1850. At the same time, Texas was reduced in size.
The Gadsden Purchase of 1853 completed the territory of the 29._______________ United States.
Part II: The Civil War (1853 - 1865)
No more slave states were admitted after Texas. Minnesota became a free state in 1858, and Oregon a free state in 1859.
In the 1850's the 30. _________ between slave and free turned to the territories. By 1860 each territory was allowed to make the choice.
The Kansas territory became the most contested. But slavery was inappropriate for small farms, and Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861.
The south now saw its cause collapsing. Slavery, relentlessly expanding since 1800, could not be 31. _________. It had made the south the leading 32.____________ exporter of the world, and the richest area of the nation. This expansion could continue to the Caribbean or to Mexico; but only if the south became a sovereign nation.
In late 1860 South Carolina 33.___________ from the Union. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Lousiana, and Texas quickly followed, forming the 34.___________ in early 1861. The Union disallowed this, and preparations for war began.
The border slave states had to choose 35.________. Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware stayed with the Union. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Rebellion. Northwest Virginia sided with the Union and was admitted as the state of 36.__________ Virginia in 1863.
In Virginia an intense war began between Richmond, the 37._____________ of the Confederacy, and Washington, DC. But the decisive war was fought in the west, where the Mississippi River was controlled by Union forces by 1863, thus 38.__________ the Confederacy in two.
Union troops cut through the remaining old south in 1864 with a 39.__________ to the sea, burning Atlanta along the way. Meanwhile Grant finally drove Lee out of Richmond. The south 40. ___________ at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. Six days later President Abraham Lincoln was 41.__________________.
Within five years all the confederate states had been readmitted to the 42.________.
Part III: Post Civil War (1865 - 1959)
During the war years, the western territories were reorganized.
Nevada became a state in 1864. Nebraska was admitted in 1867. In the same year, Alaska was purchased from 43.__________. Colorado became a state in 1876.
The 44.____________ American nations in the west resisted the occupation of their lands, but the U.S. Army, buffed up by the Civil War, defeated them after many 45.___________. By the 1880¹s, most native Americans were confined to tribal 46.__________. In 1889, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington were admitted.
In 1890, Idaho and Wyoming were admitted. The Mormon settlement became the state of 47.__________ in 1896.
Railroads interconnected the continent. The population expanded and the economy 48.________, such that by the early 20th century the United States was the leading 49.__________ power of the world.
In 1898, America defeated Spain in her shortest declared war. The U.S. obtained Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and 50.__________ and the Philippines in the far east. Cuba was given her independence in 1902, and the Philippines in 1946.
In 1898, the Hawaiian Islands in the 51.__________ were annexed.
Oklahoma was admitted as a state in 1907, including the Indian territory. In 1912, New Mexico and Arizona were admitted, completing the 48 contiguous states.
In 1959, Alaska and Hawaii were admitted, completing the growth of the nation with 52. __________ states.